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nginx is a high performance

nginx is a high performance web server software. It is a much more flexible and lightweight program than apache.

yum install epel-release

yum install nginx

ifconfig eth0 | grep inet | awk ‘{ print $2 }’

wget –no-cookies –no-check-certificate –header “Cookie:; oraclelicense=accept-securebackup-cookie” “”
tar xzf jdk-8u40-linux-i586.tar.gz
mkdir /usr/java/

cd /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_40/
[root@cluster1 java]# ln -s /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_40/bin/java /usr/bin/java
[root@cluster1 java]# alternatives –install /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_40/bin/java java /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_40/bin/java 2

alternatives –install /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_40/bin/java java /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_40/bin/java 2
alternatives –config java

vi /etc/profile.d/
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_25
export JRE_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_25/jre
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_25/bin:/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_25/jre/bin

Three, Tomcat load balancing configuration

When Nginx start loading default configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf, while nginx.conf in references /etc/nginx/conf.d catalog all .conf files.

Therefore, some of their own custom configuration can be written to a separate .conf files, as long as the files are placed /etc/nginx/conf.d this directory can be, and easy maintenance.

Create tomcats.conf: vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/tomcats.conf, which reads as follows:


vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/tomcats.conf

upstream tomcats {

Modify default.conf: vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf, amend as follows:
vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
need to amend the below lines
#location / {
# root /usr/share/nginx/html;
# index index.html index.htm;

# new configuration default forwards the request to tomcats. conf configuration upstream processing
location / {
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_pass http://tomcats;

After saving reload the configuration: nginx -s reload

Four separate static resource configuration

Modify default.conf: vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf, add the following configuration:
vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

All js, css requests related static resource files processed by Nginx

location ~.*\.(js|css)$ {
root /opt/static-resources;
expires 12h;

Request # All photos and other multimedia-related static resource files is handled by Nginx

location ~.*\.(html|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|gif|ico|mp3|mid|wma|mp4|swf|flv|rar|zip|txt|doc|ppt|xls|pdf)$ {
root /opt/static-resources;
expires 7d;

Create a Directory for the Certificate
mkdir /etc/nginx/ssl
cd /etc/nginx/ssl
openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 2048
openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
cp server.key
openssl rsa -in -out server.key
openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

server {
listen 80;
listen 443 default ssl;
keepalive_timeout 70;
# ssl on;
ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/server.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/server.key;
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

Nginx server security configuration

First, turn off SELinux
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux kernel feature that provides security policy protection mechanism supports access control.
However, SELinux brings additional security and the disproportionate use of complexity, cost is not high

sed -i /SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/ /etc/selinux/config

/usr/sbin/sestatus -v # Check status

Second, the least privilege allowed by zoning mount

A separate partition on the server nginx directory.

For example, create a new partition /dev/sda5 (first logical partition), and mounted at /nginx.
Make sure /nginx is noexec,nodev and nosetuid permission to mount

The following is my /etc/fstab mount /nginx information: LABEL=/nginx /nginx ext3 defaults,nosuid,noexec,nodev 1 2

Note: You need to create a new partition using fdisk and mkfs.ext3 command.
Third, to strengthen the Linux security configuration /etc/sysctl.conf

You can control and configure the Linux kernel by editing /etc/sysctl.conf, network settings

# Avoid a smurf attack

net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1

# Turn on protection for bad icmp error messages

net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1

# Turn on syncookies for SYN flood attack protection

net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

# Turn on and log spoofed, source routed, and redirect packets

net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1

net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians = 1

# No source routed packets here

net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0

net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

# Turn on reverse path filtering

net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1

net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

# Make sure no one can alter the routing tables

net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0

net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0

net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0

# Don’t act as a router

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0

net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0

net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0

# Turn on execshild

kernel.exec-shield = 1

kernel.randomize_va_space = 1

# Tuen IPv6

net.ipv6.conf.default.router_solicitations = 0

net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0

net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_pinfo = 0

net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_defrtr = 0

net.ipv6.conf.default.autoconf = 0

net.ipv6.conf.default.dad_transmits = 0

net.ipv6.conf.default.max_addresses = 1

# Optimization for port usefor LBs

# Increase system file descriptor limit

fs.file-max = 65535

# Allow for more PIDs (to reduce rollover problems); may break some programs 32768

kernel.pid_max = 65536

# Increase system IP port limits

net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 2000 65000

# Increase TCP max buffer size setable using setsockopt()

net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 8388608

net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 87380 8388608

# Increase Linux auto tuning TCP buffer limits

# min, default, and max number of bytes to use

# set max to at least 4MB, or higher if you use very high BDP paths

# Tcp Windows etc

net.core.rmem_max = 8388608

net.core.wmem_max = 8388608

net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 5000

net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1

Fourth, remove all unnecessary Nginx module

You need to make the number of modules directly by compiling the source code Nginx minimized. By limiting access to only allow web server module to minimize risk.
You can configure only install nginx modules you need. For example, disabling SSL and autoindex module you can execute the following command:

./configure -without-http_autoindex_module -without-http_ssi_module
make && make install

Change nginx version name, edit the file /h/http/ngx_http_header_filter_module.c?

vim src/http/ngx_http_header_filter_module.c

static char ngx_http_server_string[] = “Server: nginx” CRLF;

static char ngx_http_server_full_string[] = “Server: ” NGINX_VER CRLF;

//change to

static char ngx_http_server_string[] = “Server: Mohan Web Server” CRLF;

static char ngx_http_server_full_string[] = “Server: Mohan Web Server” CRLF;

Close nginx version number display

server_tokens off

Fifth, based Iptables firewall restrictions

The following firewall script block any addition to allowing:

HTTP (TCP port 80) of a request from
ICMP ping requests from
ntp (port 123) requests output
smtp (TCP port 25) request output

Six control buffer overflow attacks

Edit and set all clients buffer size limit is as follows:

client_body_buffer_size 1K;

client_header_buffer_size 1k;

client_max_body_size 1k;

large_client_header_buffers 2 1k;

client_body_buffer_size 1k (default 8k or 16k) This instruction can specify the buffer size of the connection request entity.
If the value exceeds the specified buffer connection request, then the whole or part of the requesting entity will try to write a temporary file.
client_header_buffer_size 1k directive specifies the client request buffer size of the head.
In most cases a request header is not greater than 1k, but if there is a large cookie wap from the client that it may be greater than 1k,
Nginx will assign it a larger buffer, this value can be set inside the large_client_header_buffers .
client_max_body_size 1k- directive specifies the maximum allowable size of the client requesting entity connected, it appears in the Content-Length header field of the request.

If the request is greater than the specified value, the client will receive a “Request Entity Too Large” (413) error. Remember, the browser does not know how to display the error.
large_client_header_buffers- specify the client number and size of some of the larger buffer request header use.
Request a field can not be greater than the buffer size, if the client sends a relatively large head, nginx returns “Request URI too large” (414)
Similarly, the head of the longest field of the request can not be greater than one buffer, otherwise the server will return “Bad request” (400). Separate buffer only when demand.
The default buffer size for the operating system paging file size is usually 4k or 8k, if a connection request is ultimately state to keep- alive, it occupied the buffer will be freed.

You also need to improve server performance control timeouts and disconnects the client. Edit as follows:

client_body_timeout 10;
client_header_timeout 10;
keepalive_timeout 5 5;
send_timeout 10;

• client_body_timeout 10; – directive specifies the timeout request entity read. Here timeout refers to a requesting entity did not enter the reading step, if the connection after this time the client does not have any response, Nginx will return a “Request time out” (408) error.
• client_header_timeout 10; – directive specifies the client request header headline read timeout. Here timeout refers to a request header did not enter the reading step, if the connection after this time the client does not have any response, Nginx will return a “Request time out” (408) error.
• keepalive_timeout 5 5; – the first parameter specifies the timeout length of the client and server connections, over this time, the server will close the connection. The second parameter (optional) specifies the response header Keep-Alive: timeout = time value time, this value can make some browsers know when to close the connection to the server not repeat off if you do not specify this parameter , nginx does not send Keep-Alive header information in the response. (This does not refer to how a connection “Keep-Alive”) These two values ??of the parameters can be different.
• send_timeout 10; directive specifies the timeout is sent to the client after the response, Timeout refers not enter a complete state established, completed only two handshakes, more than this time if the client does not have any response, nginx will close the connection.

Seven control concurrent connections

You can use NginxHttpLimitZone module to restrict a specific session or a special case of concurrent connections IP addresses under. Edit nginx.conf:

### Directive describes the zone, in which the session states are stored i.e. store in slimits. ###

### 1m can handle 32000 sessions with 32 bytes/session, set to 5m x 32000 session ###

limit_zone slimits $binary_remote_addr 5m;

### Control maximum number of simultaneous connections for one session i.e. ###

### restricts the amount of connections from a single ip address ###

limit_conn slimits 5

The above represents the remote IP address to limit each client connection can not be open at the same time more than five.

Eight, only allow access to our domain

If the robot is just random scan all domain name servers, that reject the request. You must allow the configuration of the virtual domain or reverse proxy request. You do not use IP addresses to reject.

if ($host !~ ^(||$ ) {
return 444;

Nine, to limit the request method available

GET and POST are the Internet’s most commonly used method. The method of the Web server is defined in RFC 2616. If the Web server is not required to run all available methods, they should be disabled. The following command will filter only allows GET, HEAD and POST methods:

## Only allow these request methods ##

if ($request_method !~ ^(GET|HEAD|POST)$ ) {

return 444;


## Do not accept DELETE, SEARCH and other methods ##

More about HTTP method introduced

• GET method is used to request,

• HEAD method is the same, unless GET request to the server can not return the message body.

• POST method can involve many things, such as storage or update data, or ordering products, or send e-mail by submitting the form. This is usually the use of server-side processing, such as PHP, Perl and Python scripts. If the file you want to upload and server processing the data, you must use this method.

Ten, how to refuse a number of User-Agents?

You can easily stop User-Agents, such as scanners, robotics and abuse your server spammers.

## Block download agents ##

if ($http_user_agent ~* LWP::Simple|BBBike|wget) {

return 403;


Soso and the proper way to prevent robots:

## Block some robots ##

if ($http_user_agent ~* Sosospider|YodaoBot) {

return 403;


XI prevent image hotlinking

Pictures or HTML Daolian mean someone directly with your website address to display pictures on his website. The end result, you need to pay the extra cost of broadband. This is often in the forum and blog. I strongly recommend that you block and prevent hotlinking behavior.

# Stop deep linking or hot linking

location /images/ {

valid_referers none blocked;

if ($invalid_referer) {

return 403;



For example: the redirect and display the specified image

valid_referers blocked;

valid_referers blocked;

if ($invalid_referer) {

rewrite ^/images/uploads.*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png)$ last


Twelve, directory restrictions

You can set access permissions on the specified directory. All websites directory should one configuration, allowing only access to the directory.
Access by IP address restrictions
You can restrict access by IP address directory / admin /:

ocation /docs/ {

## block one workstation


## allow anyone in


## drop rest of the world

deny all;


Via password protected directory, first create the password file and increase the “user” user

mkdir /usr/local/nginx/conf/.htpasswd/

htpasswd -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/.htpasswd/passwd user

Edit nginx.conf, added need protected directories

### Password Protect /personal-images/ and /delta/ directories ###

location ~ /(personal-images/.*|delta/.*) {

auth_basic “Restricted”;

auth_basic_user_file /usr/local/nginx/conf/.htpasswd/passwd;


Once the password file has been generated, you can also use the following command to allow access to the user increases

htpasswd -s /usr/local/nginx/conf/.htpasswd/passwd userName

Thirteen, Nginx SSL Configuration

HTTP is a plain text protocol, which is open to passive surveillance. You should use SSL to encrypt your user content.
Create SSL certificate, execute the following command:

cd /usr/local/nginx/conf

openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024

openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr

cp server.key

openssl rsa -in -out server.key

openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

Edit nginx.conf press following updates:

server {


listen 443;

ssl on;

ssl_certificate /usr/local/nginx/conf/server.crt;

ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/nginx/conf/server.key;

access_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/ssl.access.log;

error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/ssl.error.log;


Fourteen, Nginx and PHP Security Recommendations

PHP is a popular scripting language on the server side. Edit /etc/php.ini file as follows:

# Disallow dangerous functions

disable_functions = phpinfo, system, mail, exec

## Try to limit resources ##

# Maximum execution time of each script, in seconds

max_execution_time = 30

# Maximum amount of time each script may spend parsing request data

max_input_time = 60

# Maximum amount of memory a script may consume (8MB)

memory_limit = 8M

# Maximum size of POST data that PHP will accept.

post_max_size = 8M

# Whether to allow HTTP file uploads.

file_uploads = Off

# Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.

upload_max_filesize = 2M

# Do not expose PHP error messages to external users

display_errors = Off

# Turn on safe mode

safe_mode = On

# Only allow access to executables in isolated directory

safe_mode_exec_dir = php-required-executables-path

# Limit external access to PHP environment

safe_mode_allowed_env_vars = PHP_

# Restrict PHP information leakage

expose_php = Off

# Log all errors

log_errors = On

# Do not register globals for input data

register_globals = Off

# Minimize allowable PHP post size

post_max_size = 1K

# Ensure PHP redirects appropriately

cgi.force_redirect = 0

# Disallow uploading unless necessary

# Enable SQL safe mode

sql.safe_mode = On

# Avoid Opening remote files

allow_url_fopen = Off

Fifth, if possible, let Nginx run in a chroot jail

The nginx placed in a chroot jail to reduce the potential for illegal entry into other directories. You can use the traditional and nginx installed with chroot. If possible, that use FreeBSD jails, Xen, OpenVZ virtualization container concept.

XVI firewall level limits the number of connections for each IP

Network server must monitor connections and connection limits per second. PF and Iptales are able to enter your nginx server before the end user to block access.
Linux Iptables: limit the number of connections for each Nginx
following example will prevent from a single IP connection of more than 15 the number of ports 80, 60 seconds.

/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -i eth0 -m state –state NEW -m recent –set

/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -i eth0 -m state –state NEW -m recent –update –seconds 60 –hitcount 15 -j DROP

service iptables save

According to your specific situation to set the connection limit.

XVII configure the operating system to protect Web servers

Like the above described start SELinux Correct set permissions /nginx document root directory.
Nginx running in user nginx. But the root directory (/ nginx or /usr/local/nginx/html/) should not be set, or the user belongs to the user nginx nginx writable.
Find the error file permissions can use the following command:

find /nginx -user nginx

find /usr/local/nginx/html -user nginx

Make sure you are more ownership of the root or other users, a typical permission settings /usr/local/nginx/html/

ls -l /usr/local/nginx/html/

Sample output:

-rw-r-r- 1 root root 925 Jan 3 00:50 error4xx.html

-rw-r-r- 1 root root 52 Jan 3 10:00 error5xx.html

-rw-r-r- 1 root root 134 Jan 3 00:52 index.html

You must delete the backup files from the vi or another text editor to create:

find /nginx -name ‘.?*’ -not -name .ht* -or -name ‘*~’ -or -name ‘*.bak*’ -or -name ‘*.old*’

find /usr/local/nginx/html/ -name ‘.?*’ -not -name .ht* -or -name ‘*~’ -or -name ‘*.bak*’ -or -name ‘*.old*’

To delete these files by -delete option to find command.

Eighth, the outgoing connections limit Nginx

Hackers can use tools such as wget download your local file server. Iptables from using nginx user to block outgoing connections. ipt_owner module tries to match the creator of locally generated packets. The following example allows only users 80 user connections outside.

/sbin/iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -m owner –uid-owner vivek -p tcp –dport 80 -m state –state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

With the above configuration, your nginx server is already very safe and you can publish web pages. However, you should also find more information on security settings according to your site procedures. For example, wordpress or a third-party program.

nginx is a good web server, providing a full range of speed limit function, the main function module is ngx_http_core_module,
ngx_http_limit_conn_module and ngx_http_limit_req_module, the first module in limit_rate function (limited speed bandwidth),

the latter two modules Literally , functions are limiting connections (limit connection) and restriction request (limit request), these modules are compiled into the default nginx core.

All limits are for IP and therefore CC, DDOS has some defensive role.

Limited bandwidth is very easy to understand, directly on the example

location /mp3 {
limit_rate 200k;

There is a way you can make the speed limit is more humane, namely transmission speed after the start of a certain flow,

Such as the first full-speed transmission 1M, then start speed:

location /photo {
limit_rate_after 1m;
limit_rate 100k;

Then speak and limit the number of concurrent requests.

Why do these two modules? Because we know that a page is usually more than one child module, such as five pictures, then we request this page initiated a connection,
but this is a connection request that contains the five pictures, which means that a connection can initiate multiple requests . We have to maintain the user experience,
it is to limit the number of connections or requests, to be selected according to actual needs.

limit the number of connections

To restrict access, you must first have a container for connection count, add the following code segment http:

limit_conn_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=addr:5m;

This will create a 5M in memory size, speed pool named addr (each connection occupies 32 or 64 bytes, 5m size which can accommodate tens of thousands of connections, is usually sufficient,
if memory is exhausted 5M , will return to 503)

Next, the need for a different location server (location above) to limit the rate, such as restrictions on the number of concurrent connections per IP is 2,

limit_conn addr 2;

2, limit the number of requests

To limit the number of requests, you must first create a speed pool, add the following code segment at http:

limit_conn_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=addr:5m;

Limit divided into global and local speed limit,

For global speed limit, we only need to be followed by the parameters, such as 20 requests per second, rate = 20r / s, namely:

limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=perip:5m rate=20r/s;

Sometimes we want to adjust the location segment links, you can help burst parameters

limit_req zone=one burst=50;

If you do not want to delay, there nodelay parameters

limit_req zone=one burst=50 nodelay;

The above is the rate-limiting nginx Introduction, inappropriate, please correct me. As for the specific use of methods which limit must be considered, so as not to damage the user experience.

nginx log filter Web Crawler

Nginx log analysis, when there is a headache many spiders reptiles marks.

Given that most spiders reptiles are called xx-bot or xx-spider, the following methods can be written to a separate log reptiles:

location / {
if ($http_user_agent ~* “bot|spider”) {
access_log /var/log/nginx/spider.access.log;
Or simply do not write log

location / {
if ($http_user_agent ~* “bot|spider”) {
access_log off;

Tomcat implement multi-instance use systemd centos 7 RHEL 7

rpm -ivh jdk-8u60-linux-x64.rpm

getent group tomcat || groupadd -r tomcat
getent passwd tomcat || useradd -r -d /opt -s /bin/nologin tomcat

cd /opt
tar xzf jdk-8u40-linux-i586.tar.gz

mv apache-tomcat-8.0.30 tomcat01
chown -R tomcat:tomcat tomcat01

tar zxvf apache-tomcat-8.0.30.tar.gz
mv apache-tomcat-8.0.30 tomcat02
chown -R tomcat:tomcat tomcat02

sed -i ‘s/8080/8081/g’ /opt/tomcat01/conf/server.xml
sed -i ‘s/8005/8001/g’ /opt/tomcat01/conf/server.xml
sed -i ‘s/8080/8082/g’ /opt/tomcat02/conf/server.xml
sed -i ‘s/8005/8002/g’ /opt/tomcat02/conf/server.xml

sed -i ‘/8009/d’ /opt/tomcat01/conf/server.xml
sed -i ‘/8009/d’ /opt/tomcat01/conf/server.xml

cd /usr/lib/systemd/system
cat >tomcat01.service <<EOF
Description=Apache Tomcat 7

sed ‘s/tomcat01/tomcat02/g’ tomcat01.service > tomcat02.service

systemctl enable tomcat01
systemctl enable tomcat02
systemctl start tomcat01
systemctl start tomcat02

proxy_cache_path /var/cache/nginx/proxy_cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=static:10m inactive=30d max_size=1g;

upstream tomcat {
ip_hash ;
#hash $remote_addr consistent;
server max_fails=1 fail_timeout=2s ;
server max_fails=1 fail_timeout=2s ;
keepalive 16;

server {
listen 80;

charset utf-8;
access_log /var/log/nginx/tomcat.access.log main;
root /usr/share/nginx/html;
index index.html index.htm index.jsp;

location / {
proxy_pass http://tomcat;
proxy_redirect off;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header updating http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504;

proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 300;
proxy_http_version 1.1;
proxy_set_header Connection “”;

add_header X-Backend “$upstream_addr”;

location ~* ^.+\.(js|css|ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png)$ {
proxy_pass http://tomcat ;
proxy_redirect off;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header updating http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504;

proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 300;
proxy_http_version 1.1;
proxy_set_header Connection “”;

proxy_cache static;
proxy_cache_key $host$uri$is_args$args;
proxy_cache_valid 200 302 7d;
proxy_cache_valid 404 1m;
proxy_cache_valid any 1h;
add_header X-Cache $upstream_cache_status;

#log_not_found off;
#access_log off;
expires max;

location ~ /\.ht {
deny all;


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